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Исторические науки
Gerasimov G.I. 1

1. Tula state Museum of weapons


History is the change of mankind in time. The main question is what is the source of historical development. In a materialistic approach, these are external forces relative to a person. In idealistic — the ideas that are created by human consciousness. The definition of the factor of historical development largely predetermines the history that the historian will create on his basis. The basis of history is human activity. In contrast to the activity of animals, it is purposeful. Its goals are completely determined by the human mind. The real source, the beginning and the motor of human activity is its consciousness. The reason is the idea worked out by this con-sciousness. The idea always precedes the action. Without an idea that determines goal-setting, the action will be purposeless. Only after understanding the idea, the historian understands the meaning and content of historical action. The idea always precedes the transformation of the world, and it is created by the creativity of the individual consciousness. Everything that was created by human was first created by him perfectly, and then realized in the objective world. A man not only creates new things, actions, and relationships, but also creates a new reality, which was not in nature before him. We can attribute to this reality public, virtual, cultural, artistic real-ities. The idea underlying the human action creating the historical action is its essence and content, since it precedes and determines this action. The idea created by a concrete individual, breaking away from it and becoming the property of other people, acquires the power of an objective idea directing historical actions. Ideas are created by concrete people, but they can be realized through other people. The totality of people who share certain ideas form a community that becomes an actor of historical action. The unity of action of many people is ensured by the unity of the ideas shared by them, directing their historical activity. Thus, behind the communi-ties of people, as actors of history there are ideas.

Keywords: subject of history, source of historical development, idealistic approach to history, historical idealism, historical action, ideas are the driving forces of history

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