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Исторические науки
Gerasimov G.I. 1

1. Tula Museum of weapons


Past reality does not exist. The ideal idea of the past event, compiled by the historian on the basis of the source, is the only past reality. A witness always sees a historical event through the prism of the content of his consciousness, therefore any source is subjective and needs first an understanding, and then an explanation. This is the process of creating a historical fact. There is no pure fact, it is always processed by the consciousness of the witness of the event or of its participant, i.e. the author of the original source. Each source is created within the framework of a particular theory, as an ideal representation of the phenomenon, and needs to be understood by a modern historian. After he is understood, the historian must explain the event from the stand-point of his modern theory. Any event consists of an idea guided by people who have committed a historical action, and the action itself. The event is retained only in the witness´s certificate. The event occurs real-istically, and then is translated into an ideal form, for transmission to another person in the form of an oral or written story. The idea in the text, the sign or the symbol can be transferred to the historian without losing its contents by the author. Understanding an idea is an understanding of the essence of a historical event. The idea is timeless, it is not affected by time, because it is im-material. History, as an image of the past, is created with the help of theory and facts. Depending on theory which is used to help creating the image of the past, sources are selected. Texts are the basis of the history of people, because in order to understand historical actions, one must under-stand the thoughts of the participants in the action, and the texts convey them in besr. Material monuments play the role of secondary sources in the human history, in the event that they are not themselves a symbol, a sign.

Keywords: idealistic approach to history, historical source, historical fact, text as a source, material monuments

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